natural way to provide such opportunities across the curriculum. Consider,
for example, a typical whole-class discussion on sources of pollution. In a
10-minute discussion, only a handful
of students are likely to be able to
share their ideas, and each may only
contribute a few phrases or sentences.
English-proficient students typically
dominate such discussions.
In contrast, during the same
10-minute period, cooperative-learning structures such as think-pair-share, concentric circles, or numbered
heads together could give all students
the opportunity to engage in more
Information-gap activities, in which
each student is given information
that the other student needs for
both of them to complete a specific
task, provide additional opportunities for authentic communication.
For example, in a role-play activity
involving buying shoes, the “buyer”
could have a list of shoe brands and
types she is interested in and the
amount of money she has to spend,
while the “seller” could have a list of
shoes, their prices, and special offers.
Focused Instruction and
Research has made it clear that oral
language development is essential for
English language learners’ literacy and
academic achievement. Although
schools should provide bilingual
instruction for ELLs when possible,
whatever kind of program they’re in,
these students also must receive daily
ESL instruction and sheltered content-area instruction. To achieve their full
potential, ELLs need focused listening
and speaking instruction, as well as
ample opportunities to develop their
oral English proficiency through
meaningful interactions in the
1This sink-or-swim immersion approach
was declared illegal in 1974 by the U.S.
Supreme Court in Lao v. Nichols, 414 U.S.
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006).
Executive summary: Developing literacy
in second-language learners: Report of
the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah,
NJ: Erlbaum. Retrieved from www
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders,
W. M., & Christian, D. (2006). Edu-
cating English language learners: A syn-
thesis of research evidence. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Wright, W. E. (2015). Foundations for
teaching English language learners:
Research, theory, policy, and practice
(2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Caslon
Wright, W. E., Boun, S., & García, O.
(2015). Handbook of bilingual and multilingual education. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Wayne E. Wright (wewright@purdue
.edu) is professor and Barbara I. Cook
Chair of Literacy and Language at
Purdue University, College of Education,
Lafayette, Indiana. Follow him on Twitter
revealed a tight
TEACHERS COLLEGE PRESS
WW W. TCPRESS.COM
CAROL BOOTH OLSON
ROBIN C. SCARCELLA
“Ingest, consider, and employ the
strategies described here.”
—From the Foreword
by Steve Graham
DEBORAH L. WOLTER
reader.” —Richard L. Allington
SOCORRO G. HERRERA
This bestseller has been updated
with new teaching strategies.