brains adapt to experiences by making
changes—and your students can
You can help them do so by understanding these seven differences and
addressing these differences with purposeful teaching. Your school can join
the ranks of the many high-performing
Title I schools where students succeed
every day. EL
Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Kirkwood,
H., & Elliott, J. (2009). The cognitive and
behavioral characteristics of children with
low working memory. Child Development,
80( 2), 606–621.
Antonow-Schlorke, I., Schwab, M., Cox,
L. A., Lic, C., Stuchlika, K., Wittea,
O. W., et al. (2011). Vulnerability of the
fetal primate brain to moderate reduction
in maternal global nutrient availability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America,
108( 7), 3011–3016.
Basch, C. E. (2011). Breakfast and the
achievement gap among urban minority
youth. Journal of School Health, 81( 10),
Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., &
Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of
intelligence predict achievement across an
adolescent transition. Child Development,
78( 1), 246–263.
Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). Child
development in the context of adversity.
American Psychology, 67( 4), 309–318.
Bracey, G. W. (2006). Poverty’s infernal
mechanism. Principal Leadership, 6( 6), 60.
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002).
Socioeconomic status and child
development. Annual Review of Psychology,
Buschkuehl, M., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2010).
Improving intelligence. Swiss Medical
Weekly, 140, 266–272.
Butterworth, P., Olesen, S. C., & Leach, L. S.
(2012). The role of hardship in the association between socio-economic position
and depression. Australia and New Zealand
Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 364–373.
Cooper, L. A. (2012, May/June). Do
“consoling” messages hinder math
achievement? Harvard Education Letter,
Economic Policy Institute. (2002). The state
of working class America 2002–03. Washington, DC: Author.
Evans, G. W. (2003). A multimethodological
analysis of cumulative risk and allostatic
load among rural children. Developmental
Psychology, 39( 5), 924–933.
Evans, G. W., Kim, P., Ting, A. H., Tesher,
H. B., & Shannis, D. (2007). Cumulative
risk, maternal responsiveness and allostatic load among young adolescents.
Developmental Psychology, 43( 2), 341–351.
Evans, G. W., & Schamberg, M. A. (2009,
April 21). Childhood poverty, chronic
stress, and adult working memory.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America, 106( 13),
Ferguson, R. (1998). Evidence that schools can
narrow the black-white test score gap.
Cambridge, MA: Malcolm Wiener Center for
Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A. (1997). Academic
success among students at risk for school
failure. Journal of Applied Psychology,
82( 2), 221–234.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Losada, M. F. (2005).
Positive affect and the complex dynamics
of human flourishing. American Psychologist, 6( 7), 678–686
Gorski, P. (2008). The myth of the culture
of poverty. Educational Leadership, 65( 7),
Gottlieb, D. J., Beiser, A. S., & O’Connor,
G. T. (1995). Poverty, race, and medication use are correlates of asthma hospitalization rates. American College of Chest
Physicians, 108( 1), 28–35.
Gray, J. R., & Thompson, P. M. (2004).
Neurobiology of intelligence. Discovery
Medicine, 4( 22), 157–162.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful
differences in the everyday experience of
young American children. Baltimore: Paul
H. Brookes Publishing.
Irvin, M. J., Meece, J. L., Byun, S., Farmer,
T. W., & Hutchins, B. C. (2011).
Relationship of school context to rural
youth’s educational achievement and
aspirations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40( 9), 1225–1242.
Liston, C., McEwen, B. S., & Casey, B. J.
(2009). Psychosocial stress reversibly
disrupts prefrontal processing and attentional control. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Science, 106( 3), 912–917.
Menyuk, P. (1980). Effect of persistent otitis
media on language development. Annals
of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Supplement, 89( 3), 257–263.
Miller, E. M., Walton, G. M., Dweck, C. S.,
Job, V., Trzesniewski, K. H., & McClure,
S. M. (2012). Theories of willpower
affect sustained learning. PLoS One, 7( 6),
Odéen, M., Westerlund, H., Theorell, T.,
Leineweber, C., Eriksen, H. R., & Ursin,
H. (2012, February). Expectancies, socio-
economic status, and self-rated health.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.
Eric Jensen ( firstname.lastname@example.org) is the
author of Engagement with Poverty in
Mind (ASCD, 2013) and Teaching with
Poverty in Mind (ASCD, 2009); www