Instead, schools need learning leaders
who create a schoolwide focus on
learning both for students and the
adults who serve them. EL
Annenberg Institute for School Reform.
(2005). Professional learning commu-
nities: Professional development strategies
that improve instruction. Providence, RI:
Author. Retrieved from http://annenberg
Barber, M., & Mourshed, M. (2009). Shaping
the future: How good education systems can
become great in the decade ahead. McKinsey
and Company. Retrieved from www
Carroll, T., Fulton, K., & Doerr, H. (2010).
Team up for 21st century teaching and
learning: What research and practice reveal
about professional learning. Washington,
DC: National Commission on Teaching
and America’s Future.
Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Duffett, A., Farkas, S., Rotherham, A. J., &
Silva, E. (2008). Waiting to be won over:
Teachers speak on the profession, unions,
and reform. Washington, DC: Education
DuFour, R., & Fullan, M. (2013). Cultures
built to last: Making PLCs systemic. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
DuFour, R., & Marzano, R. (2011).
Leaders of learning: How district, school,
and classroom leaders improve student
achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution
Elmore, R. (2004). School reform from the
inside out: Policy, practice, and performance.
Boston: Harvard Educational Press.
Fryer, R. (2011). Teacher incentives and
student achievement: Evidence from New
York City Schools. Cambridge, MA:
National Bureau of Economic Research.
Fullan, M. (2010). The moral imperative
realized. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis
of over 800 meta-analyses relating to student
achievement. New York: Routledge.
Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How
to change things when change is hard. New
York: Crown Publishing.
Holland, H. (2005). Teaching teachers: Professional development to improve student
achievement. Research Points: Essential
Information for Educational Policy, 3( 1),
1–4. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Johnson, S. M., & Kardos, S. (2007).
Professional culture and the promise of colleagues. In S. M. Johnson, Finders and
keepers: Helping new teachers survive and
thrive in our schools (pp. 139–166). San
The PLC process
is more likely to
Little, J. W. (2006). Professional community
and professional development in the
learning-centered school. Washington, DC:
National Education Association. Retrieved
Louis, K., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom,
K., & Anderson, S. (2010). Learning
from leadership: Investigating the links to
improved student learning. New York:
Louis, K., & Wahlstrom, K. (2011). Principals as cultural leaders. Phi Delta
Kappan, 92( 5), 52–56.
Marzano, R. (2009). Setting the record
straight on “high-yield” strategies. Phi
Delta Kappan, 91( 1), 30–37.
Marzano, R., Waters, T., & McNulty, B.
(2005). School leadership that works: From
research to results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Newmann, F., & Wehlage, G. (1995).
Successful school restructuring: A report to
the public and educators by the Center on
Organization and Restructuring of Schools.
Madison: University of Wisconsin.
Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. (2006). Hard facts,
dangerous half-truths and total nonsense:
Profiting from evidence-based management.
Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Pink, D. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth
about what motivates us. New York:
Saunders, W., Goldenberg, C., & Gallimore,
R. (2009). Increasing achievement by
focusing grade-level teams on improving
classroom learning: A prospective, quasi-experimental study of Title I schools.
American Educational Research Journal,
46( 4), 1006–1033.
Springer, M. G., Hamilton, L., McCaffrey,
D. F., Ballou, D., Le, V., Pepper, M.,
et al. (2010). Teacher pay for performance: Experimental evidence from the
project on incentives in teaching. Nashville,
TN: National Center on Performance
Timperley, H. (2008). Teacher professional
learning and development. (Educational
Vescio, V., Ross, D., & Adams, A. (2008).
A review of the research on the impact
of professional learning communities on
teaching practice and student learning.
Teaching and Teacher Education, 24( 1),
Viadero, D. (2009, September 3). Where’s
the research in race to the top? [blog post]
Retrieved from Education Week: Inside
School Research at http://blogs.edweek.org/
Copyright © 2013 Richard DuFour
and Michael Mattos
Rick DuFour (rdufour923@gmail
.com) is an author and consultant on
implementing the PLC process. He is
coauthor, with Michael Fullan, of
Cultures Built to Last: Making PLCs Systemic (Solution Tree, 2013) and, with
Robert Marzano, of Leaders of Learning:
How District, Schools, and Classroom
Leaders Improve Student Achievement
(Solution Tree, 2011). Mike Mattos is
an education consultant and is coauthor,
with Austin Buffum and Chris Weber,
of Simplifying Response to Intervention
(Solution Tree, 2011).