developmental model, each year
teachers identify elements on which to
improve and then chart their progress
throughout the year. A teacher might
select one strategy from each of the
three major categories depicted in
Figure;1: for example, establishing
system designed for
classroom rules and procedures,
chunking content into digestible bites,
and asking questions of students for
whom he or she may have had low
expectations in the past. Presumably
these strategies would be ones for which
the teacher was at the beginning or not
The teacher would then select specific
growth targets to accomplish during the
year. To illustrate, assume a teacher was
at the beginning level for all three target
strategies and set a goal to reach the
on teacher development, the model
applying level on all three by the end of
needs to be both comprehensive and
the year. In addition to scoring teachers specific and focus on the teacher’s
on their current level of proficiency on
growth in various instructional strat-
the various elements within the evalu-
egies. These distinctions are crucial to
ation model—we refer to these ratings
the effective design and implementation
as “status” scores—teachers would be
of current and future teacher evaluation
scored on the extent to which they
reached their growth goals. Attaining
all three growth goals would earn the
highest growth score, attaining two of
three goals would earn the next highest
growth score, and so on.
At the end of the year, teachers would
have two scores: an overall status score
and an overall growth score. Both of
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2011).
Learning about teaching: Initial findings
from the Measures of Effective Teaching
project. Bellevue, WA: Author. Retrieved
these scores would be considered when
assigning teachers to a summative
category at the end of the year—for
example, advanced, proficient, needing
improvement, or not acceptable. Such a
system would communicate to teachers
that the school expects—and rewards—
Evertson, C., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.).
(2006). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary
issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking
in classrooms (9th ed). Boston: Allyn and
Hattie, J. A. C. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to
achievement. New York: Routledge.
Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of
teaching: A comprehensive framework for
effective instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston,
D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting
the art and science of teaching. Alexandria,
Sheets, R. H., & Gay, G. (1996, May).
Student perceptions of disciplinary conflict in ethnically diverse classrooms.
NASSP Bulletin, 80(580), 84–93.
Strong, M. (2011). The highly qualified
teacher: What is teacher quality and how
do you measure it? New York: Teachers
Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to
judgment: Teacher evaluation in public
education. Washington, DC: Education
U.S. Department of Education. (2009). Race
to the Top program executive summary.
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from
Walberg, H. J. (1999). Productive teaching.
In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.),
New directions for teaching and practice
research (pp. 75–104). Berkeley, CA:
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg,
H. J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base
for school learning. Review of Educational
Research, 63( 3), 249–294.
Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., &
Keeling, D. (2009). The widget effect:
Our national failure to acknowledge and
act on differences in teacher effectiveness.
Brooklyn, NY: New Teacher Project.
Retrieved from http://widgeteffect.org/
Watc; th; Interview
The Best of Both Worlds
Both measurement and development are
important aspects of teacher evaluation.
When measurement is the primary
purpose, a small set of elements is sufficient to determine a teacher’s skill in the
classroom. However, if the emphasis is
Robert J. Marzano talks with
EL editor in chief Marge Scherer
about the purposes of teacher
evaluation at www.ascd.org/
Robert J. Marzano ( robert.marzano@
marzanoresearch.com) is cofounder and
CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory
in Denver, Colorado. His latest book,
coauthored with Tony Frontier and David
Livingston, is Effective Supervision: Supporting the Art and Science of Teaching