Our feedback can communicate to them
that we have heard them, and they will
be more likely to trust us enough to
follow our advice for that sometimes-difficult next step. ;L
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 84( 3), 261–271.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment
and classroom learning. Assessment in
Education, 5( 1), 7–74.
Butler, R. (1988). Enhancing and undermining intrinsic motivation: The effects of
task-involving and ego-involving evaluation on interest and performance. British
Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 1–14.
Chappuis, J. (2009). Seven strategies of
assessment for learning. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The
power of feedback. Review of Educational
Research, 77( 1), 81–112.
Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written
composition: New directions for teaching.
Fairfax, VA: National Council of Teachers
of English. (ERIC Document Retrieval
Service No. ED265552)
Shepard, L. A. (2001). The role of classroom
assessment in teaching and learning. In
V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research
on teaching (4th ed., pp. 1066–1101).
Washington, DC: American Educational
Jan Chappuis is vice president of
Pearson Assessment Training Institute
in Portland, Oregon; Jan.Chappuis@
FIGURE 3. Effective and Ineffective Feedback
These three examples show how a teacher might provide feedback on a
sentence from a 10th grade social studies paper.
The feedback in the example above does the thinking for the student.
Feedback with Guidance
The feedback in the example above gives the student guidance on types of
errors and where they appear (S = spelling, P = punctuation, C = capitalization).
Feedback That Notes Areas Needing Work
The feedback in the example above shows the student where errors appear but
requires the student to determine what the errors are and how to correct them.