self-efficacy skill: the ability to identify
personal beliefs and habits that get in
the way of accomplishing one’s goals.
It’s probably the most confrontational of
all the phases. Here, the student might
realize that she gets discouraged easily
when positive feedback begins to wane.
As a result, she might resolve to work
against this tendency.
Phase 5: What is my plan for achieving
my goal, and how hard will it be?
This phase directly addresses the second
self-efficacy skill: the ability to set
concrete long- and short-term goals.
Students develop written plans that
detail the steps they will take to accomplish their goals. With guidance from
the teacher, the student who wants to
fly jets might develop a detailed two-year plan that, when executed, would
most likely result in a higher grade
point average and enhanced physical
themselves. The student who wants to
fly jets might conclude that she’s right
on schedule, proud of herself because
she’s willing to dream big, and ready
to celebrate her current progress. This
phase is also a time when students can
make adjustments in their efforts or
time lines. Our student might find that
she really isn’t as committed to flying as
she thought she was but that she’s very
committed to a career in the military.
Such changes in direction are a natural
consequence of exercising self-efficacy
and are also to be celebrated.
in the Classroom
One nice feature about personal proj-
ects is that the teacher doesn’t have to
attend to each phase every day. Rather,
he or she might devote one class period
to the first phase and then wait a few
days to address the second. After that,
the teacher could space each of the
remaining phases one or two weeks
2 Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., &
Heflebower, T. (2011). The highly engaged
classroom. Bloomington, IN: Marzano
Phase 6: What small steps
can I take right now?
This phase partially addresses the third
self-efficacy skill: the ability to monitor
one’s progress. Teachers might ask
students to identify something they
can accomplish within the next month
or two that would be a small step
toward their ultimate goal. Because Air
Force cadets must regularly run long
distances, the student might set the
goal of being able to run the mile in less
than eight minutes by the end of two
months. An effective addition to this
phase is for the teacher to ask students
to write their small step on a piece of
paper and put it in a self-addressed
envelope. The teacher then mails these
envelopes to students after two months.
CENTRAL OFFICE POSITION. to a
For more information, call
1-800-313-9833, email firstname.lastname@example.org,
or go to www.shu.edu/go/excedd.
Phase 7: How have I been doing, and
what have I learned about myself?
In the last phase, students evaluate their
overall progress and draw conclusions
regarding what they have learned about
“The knowledge and skills
acquired at Seton Hall and the
network of cohort colleagues
were essential elements to my
Jason E. Glass, Ed.D.’ 11
Iowa’s State Director
(Commissioner) of Education
SETON HALL UNIVERSI TY’S EXECUTIVE ED.D. • This nationally recognized doctoral program for practicing K- 12 administrators has prepared over 450 education leaders representing 28 states and 6 countries. • Complete your studies in just two years, with 10 weekends and two summer sessions. • Now accepting applications for the April 2012 cohort. • Loans available to cover the entire cost of the program, regardless of financial need. • Start work on dissertation from day one.