can give students the choice of showing
their understanding by either writing a
paragraph or drawing a diagram. They
can allow students to choose a partner
to work with in a text-based project.
They may give students 10 minutes to
discuss a text with a partner anywhere
in the classroom. Such options do not
dilute the curriculum, undermine the
teacher, or reduce the students’ cognitive responsibilities. On the contrary,
such choices during a lesson increase
students’ investment in performing well.
Making a choice is its own reward, but
it also enables students to make reading
relevant to themselves.
Students Can Master
As part of the Concept-Oriented
Reading Instruction (CORI) project at
the University of Maryland, we have
trained middle school teachers to use
these five essential practices. We have
found that when teachers implement
the practices fully for at least four
weeks, students increase their moti-
vation to read informational texts as
well as their achievement.
Chinn, C. A., Anderson, R. C., & Waggoner,
M. A. (2001). Patterns of discourse in two
kinds of literature discussion. Reading
Research Quarterly, 36, 378–411.
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews,
M., & Kelly, D. (2007). Grit: Perseverance
and passion for long-term goals. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 92,
Guthrie, J. T. (2011). Best practices in motivating students to read. In L. Morrow &
L. Gambrell (Eds.), Best practices in literacy
instruction (4th ed., pp. 177–198). New
Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., & Klauda, S. L.
(2012). Adolescents’ engagement in academic literacy. College Park, MD:
Hulleman, C., Godes, O., Hendriks, B.,
& Harackiewicz, J. (2010). Enhancing
interest and performance with a utility
value intervention. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 102, 880–895.
John T. Guthrie ( firstname.lastname@example.org)
is professor emeritus and Susan Lutz
Klauda ( email@example.com) is a postdoctoral research associate, Department
of Human Development and Quantitative
Methodology, University of Maryland,
First published in 2001, Classroom Instruction That Works
revolutionized teaching by linking classroom strategies to
evidence of increased student learning. Now this landmark
guide has been reenergized and reorganized for today’s
classroom with new evidence-based insights and a refined
framework that strengthens instructional planning.
Included in this new edition is a completely rethought
Instructional Planning Guide that makes it easier
for you to know when to emphasize each of the
Get an authors’ video, sample chapters,
and more online! Use the QR reader on your
smartphone or tablet to go to a webpage with
special features about Classroom Instruction That
Works, 2nd Edition.
order online at shop.ascd.org.
or call 800-933-AsCD (2723), then press 1.