learning and construct questions about
the key concepts, events, and people
in the text (Klingner, Vaughn, &
Teachers introduce the model
during whole-group instruction,
explaining and modeling each strategy.
Students take turns applying the four
Students organize their notes and use
Cornell notes or graphic organizers to
compare differing points of view (De
La Paz, 2005).
Purpose at the Core
The genre-with-purpose approach goes
beyond genre study, or learning genre fea-
Instead of asking, “Did you use the index?”
ask, “How did you find the information
you were looking for in this book?”
strategies as a class and then in small,
teacher-facilitated groups in front
of the class. Finally, students work
in small, student-led groups. They
take turns being the expert for each
strategy, helping team members apply
the strategy, while the teacher circulates to support each group as needed.
Persuasive reading. Susan De La
Paz (2005) had middle school students
prepare to write arguments by having
them read, discuss, and take notes on
readings portraying different points of
view on historic events. Students who
learned to read for point of view wrote
longer and more convincing arguments
than those in a control group who
didn’t have this preparation.
Students deepen their understanding
of point of view by learning how to
n Identify each author or speaker and
describe his or her argument. Students
define the speaker’s purpose, consider
his or her reasons, and look for evi-
dence of bias.
n Compare details and look for
conflicting views. Students look for
inconsistencies within a work, consider
differences in how different authors
describe people and events, consider
what’s missing in each argument, and
make inferences across sources.
n Make careful notes on each source.
tures for their own sake. Instead, it
embeds genre instruction in a rich bed of
purpose-driven activity that—in our
experience—students and teachers alike
find more engaging and instructive. We
encourage you to put genre with purpose
at the core of your curriculum. EL
1Kathryn Roberts developed the cur-
riculum for the summer school program.
Baumann, J. F., & Bergeron, B. S. (1993).
Story map instruction using children’s
literature: Effects on first graders’ comprehension of central narrative elements. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25( 4),
De La Paz, S. (2005). Effects of historical
reasoning instruction and writing strategy
mastery in culturally and academically
diverse middle school classrooms. Journal
of Educational Psychology, 97( 2), 139–156.
Duke, N. K., Caughlan, S., Juzwik, M. M., &
Martin, N. M. (2011). Reading and writing
genre with purpose in K– 8 classrooms.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Duke, N. K., Purcell-Gates, V., Hall, L. A.,
& Tower, C. (2006/2007). Authentic
literacy activities for developing comprehension and writing. The Reading Teacher,
60( 4), 344–355.
Duke, N. K., & Roberts, K. M. (2010). The
genre-specific nature of reading comprehension. In D. Wyse, R. Andrews, & J.
Hoffman (Eds.), The Routledge international
handbook of English, language and literacy
teaching (pp. 74–86). London: Routledge.
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Williams, J. P., &
Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students with
learning disabilities: A review of research.
Review of Educational Research, 71( 2),
Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Arguelles, M. E.,
Hughes, M. T., & Leftwich, S. A. (2004).
Collaborative strategic reading: “
Real-world” lessons from classroom teachers.
Remedial and Special Education, 25( 5),
Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Dimino, J.,
Schumm, J. S., & Bryant, D. (2001).
From clunk to click: Collaborative strategic
reading. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Schumm,
J. S. (1998). Collaborative strategic
reading during social studies in heterogeneous fourth-grade classrooms. The
Elementary School Journal, 99( 1), 3–22.
Miller, C. (1984). Genre as social action.
Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70( 2),
Purcell-Gates, V., Duke, N. K., & Martineau,
J. A. (2007). Learning to read and write
genre-specific text: Roles of authentic
experience and explicit teaching. Reading
Research Quarterly, 42( 1), 8–45.
Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004). The language of
school: A functional linguistics perspective.
Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Williams, J., Brown, L. G., Silverstein, A. K.,
& deCani, J. S. (1994). An instructional
program in comprehension of narrative
themes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly,
17( 3), 205–221.
Williams, J. P., Hall, K. M., Lauer, K. D., &
Lord, K. M. (2001). Helping elementary
school children understand story themes.
The Exceptional Child, 33( 6), 75–77.
Nell K. Duke ( email@example.com) is professor of teacher education and educational psychology and codirector of the
Literacy Achievement Research Center;
Samantha Caughlan (caughlan@msu
.edu) is assistant professor of English
education; and Mary M. Juzwik
( firstname.lastname@example.org) is associate
professor of language and literacy at
Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Nicole M. Martin (nicolemartin@uncg
.edu) is assistant professor in reading
education at the University of North
Carolina at Greensboro.