Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Romer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate
practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100( 3),
Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science
of teaching: A comprehensive framework
for effective instruction. Alexandria, VA:
Marzano, R. J. (2009). Setting the record
straight on “high yield” strategies. Phi
Delta Kappan, 91( 1), 30–37.
Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston,
D. (in press). Effective supervision: Applying
The Art and Science of Teaching.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano Research Laboratory. (2010). An
observational protocol based on The Art and
Science of Teaching. Retrieved October
2010, from www.marzanoresearch.com/
Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., &
Keeling, D. (2009). The widget effect:
Our national failure to acknowledge and
act on differences in teacher effectiveness.
Brooklyn, NY: The New Teacher Project.
Retrieved October 2010, from http://
Robert J. Marzano is cofounder and
CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory
in Denver, Colorado. He is the author
of The Art and Science of Teaching
(ASCD, 2007) and coauthor, with Mark
W. Haystead, of Making Standards
Useful in the Classroom (ASCD, 2008).
To contact Marzano or participate in a
study regarding a specific instructional
strategy, visit www.marzanoresearch
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